Researchers reported from the results of a study that, “A common virus may be a major cause of high blood pressure,” a finding that may bring a new approach to treating a condition that affects an estimated 1 billion people worldwide.
Based on a series of studies in mice, they said cytomegalovirus or CMV — a herpes virus that affects some 60 to 99 percent of adults globally — appears to increase inflammation in blood vessels, causing high blood pressure.
And when combined with a fatty diet, CMV may also cause hardening of the arteries, a major risk factor for heart attacks, strokes and kidney disease, they said.
Dr. Clyde Crumpacker of Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, who worked on the study, said in the Public Library of Science Journal PLoS Pathogens that this could be very important when treating patients.
Crumpacker stated that, “It may suggest a whole new way of looking at high blood pressure and vascular disease.”
He said the research offers the first direct proof that the virus causes persistent infection in blood vessels. Doctors typically use generic drugs such as beta blockers and ACE inhibitors to control blood pressure, a condition that affects one in every three adults in the United States.
Crumpacker said the study suggests vaccines and antiviral drugs may offer a new approach at treating hypertension.
Currently, there is no vaccine, but several companies, including Sanofi-Aventis, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline PLC and Vical, are working on them.
And Swiss drug maker Roche Holding AG makes an antiviral drug called Valcyte to prevent CMV infections in transplant recipients.
By age 40, most adults will have been exposed to CMV, although many never experience any symptoms. But the virus can cause harm in people with compromised immune systems, such as transplant recipients, and it is a major cause of birth defects in babies whose mothers were infected during pregnancy.
In one experiment, Crumpacker and colleagues examined four groups of lab mice. Two were fed a standard diet and two were fed a high fat diet. After four weeks, half of the mice from the standard and fatty diet groups were exposed to the virus.
Six weeks later, mice in both infected groups had elevated blood pressure, but 30 percent of infected mice on high cholesterol diet also showed signs of atherosclerosis.
“This strongly suggests that the CMV infection and the high cholesterol diet might be working together,” Crumpacker said.
In another study of kidney cells in infected mice, the team found high levels of the enzyme renin, which is known to cause high blood pressure. They found the same high rates of the enzyme in human blood vessel cells infected with CMV. And they found that CMV infection increased markers for inflammation in blood vessels.
More research is needed looking at the role of viruses in causing heart disease, but Crumpacker said the findings suggest new treatment possibilities.
“Some cases of hypertension might be treated or prevented by antiviral therapy or a vaccine against CMV,” he said.
Published in the May 15 issue of PLoS Pathogens http://www.plospathogens.org
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