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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #91: Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism, Hypolipidemic Agents, and Therapeutic Goals Part 3

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In the fasting state, hepatic VLDL assembly and secretion predominate. Utilization of nascent apo B100 for the assembly and secretion of VLDL is, to a large extent, limited by substrate availability, namely TG, as apo B100 is constitutively synthesized. In the presence of adequate TG, apo B100 is progressively lipidated through the actions of hepatic MTP, and the newly assembled VLDL particle is transported to the Golgi apparatus, where it may undergo further lipidation before secretion into plasma.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #75: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Part 11 of 11

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Pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipogenesis: The generation of pyruvate via glycolysis and L-PK brings the chapter full circle. Tracer experiments in humans estimate PDH flux to be very small in the postabsorptive liver. However, in the fed state activation of hepatic lipogenesis requires activation of PDH flux to generate acetyl-CoA from carbohydrate. PDH consists of three subunits (E1 – E3) that catalyze the sequential decarboxylation, acetyl-CoA formation and reduction of NAD+ to NADH, respectively.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #65: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Part 1 of 11

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The liver regulates nutrient supply to the entire body. Antoine Lavoisier first scientifically disputed the concept of vitalism by proving that the combustion of material in the blood formed the basis of life and mechanical work by muscle. He suggested that these nutrients were not only absorbed by digestion but that liver played an important anabolic role in maintaining life.

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#804

Test Your Knowledge

You have decided that one of your a 72-year-old patients should add a basal insulin dose to her antihyperglycemic regimen. During your discussion with her, she voices concern that between her “arthritic hands and poor vision” she won’t be able to accomplish this. You make the recommendation that using an insulin pen will make injection easier for her. Which of the following statement regarding insulin pens is true? Follow the link to take the quiz!

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