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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #96: Metabolomics: Applications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin Resistance Part 2

What is “metabolomics?” Metabolomics is an emerging field of analytical chemistry whose goal is to quantify all metabolites in a biologic sample, typically through application of multiple analytical platforms that enable determinations across a variety of metabolite classes. As with other omics-based technologies, this comprehensive coverage of metabolism has the benefit of allowing the observation of metabolic stressor effects not only at a single target, but also the ripple effect of the stressor, including compensatory responses, across the metabolic landscape.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #91: Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism, Hypolipidemic Agents, and Therapeutic Goals Part 3

In the fasting state, hepatic VLDL assembly and secretion predominate. Utilization of nascent apo B100 for the assembly and secretion of VLDL is, to a large extent, limited by substrate availability, namely TG, as apo B100 is constitutively synthesized. In the presence of adequate TG, apo B100 is progressively lipidated through the actions of hepatic MTP, and the newly assembled VLDL particle is transported to the Golgi apparatus, where it may undergo further lipidation before secretion into plasma.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #75: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Part 11 of 11

Pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipogenesis: The generation of pyruvate via glycolysis and L-PK brings the chapter full circle. Tracer experiments in humans estimate PDH flux to be very small in the postabsorptive liver. However, in the fed state activation of hepatic lipogenesis requires activation of PDH flux to generate acetyl-CoA from carbohydrate. PDH consists of three subunits (E1 – E3) that catalyze the sequential decarboxylation, acetyl-CoA formation and reduction of NAD+ to NADH, respectively.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #65: Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Liver Part 1 of 11

The liver regulates nutrient supply to the entire body. Antoine Lavoisier first scientifically disputed the concept of vitalism by proving that the combustion of material in the blood formed the basis of life and mechanical work by muscle. He suggested that these nutrients were not only absorbed by digestion but that liver played an important anabolic role in maintaining life.

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