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Top Test Your Knowledge Questions of 2016

In 2016, the Test Your Knowledge questions that received the most interest from our readers were those with a personal touch: questions that gave case-study style descriptions of individual patients and their needs.

Question 814 (January 2): Unnamed Patient

You are reviewing lifestyle modifications with a 42-year-old, relatively sedentary patient who has been newly diagnosed with prediabetes. Your screening for any cardiovascular risk factors was negative, so she has agreed to a 3-month trial of dietary modifications and increased physical activity. Structured exercise interventions and modest weight loss have been shown to lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations by an average of: (follow link to answer!)

Question 817 (January 23): Mrs. O’Doole

Mrs. O’Doole is a 34-year-old of Irish descent. She works as a florist and is married with three children. She arrives at your clinic for her annual wellness exam. Her blood pressure is 130/84 mmHg, pulse 65, BMI 24 kg/m2 and her physical exam is notable for acne and mild hirsutism. Her only current medication is oral birth control pills. She recalls starting OCP, 15 years prior, due to irregular menses.

Based upon her medical history and physical, you believe it would be prudent to screen Mrs. O’Doole for type 2 diabetes. You discuss your recommendations with her and she agrees be tested. The lab returns a fasting plasma glucose (FBG) of 112 mg/dL. You share these results with your patient and inform her that, while only mildly elevated, she has impaired fasting glucose.

What is the best choice for initial management of Mrs. O’Doole’s prediabetes? Follow the link to respond.

Question 823 (March 5): Mrs. Hunter

Mrs. Hunter is a 36-year-old African-American who comes to your office for her annual wellness exam. She is overweight (BMI 27 kg/m2), but is otherwise healthy. She jokes that she “just can’t seem to lose that extra baby weight” after giving birth 3 years ago. However, her daughter recently started preschool, so she has been able to go to her new gym several times per week. In fact, one of the added bonuses of her membership is the free, weekly nutrition and exercise support groups. In addition to her routine labs, you order an A1C, which comes back elevated at 7.1%. This measurement is confirmed several days later.

Based on Mrs. Hunter’s profile, what would a reasonable next step be?

Select one answer:

  1. Encourage lifestyle modifications and start metformin with an A1C target of less than 7.0%
  2. Encourage lifestyle modifications and start metformin with an A1C target of less than 6.0%
  3. Encourage lifestyle modifications and do not initiate drug therapy at this time
  4. Encourage lifestyle modifications and start metformin and a sulfonylurea

Are you correct? Follow the link to see!

Question 833 (May 14): Mrs. Wilson

Mrs. Wilson is an overweight 71-year-old African-American patient who has come to your clinic today for a new patient visit. She recently moved to the area to live with her daughter and is concerned about her diabetes care plan. She was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 12 years ago at a wellness check through routine screening. In hindsight, she wonders if maybe she “went undiagnosed for a while” because she “didn’t get to the clinic very often and was having some problems with frequent urination at night” before she was screened. She currently takes metformin, glyburide, captopril, pravastatin, aspirin and has recently titrated to .6 U/kg/day insulin NPH as a nightly basal dose. Her current A1C goal is  below 7.5% and she has been working hard to get to that level. However, for the first time in her life, she is finding herself to be nauseated and irritable in the morning, but always feels better after a little breakfast. She states she feels “pretty good for her age” although she occasionally has “a little chest tightness when walking more than 4 or 5 blocks.” Last time she remembered to check it a few days ago, her postprandial glucose was a little high at 214 mg/dL. Her office A1C is 8.6%.

Based on her history, what would be an acceptable individualized A1C goal for this patient?

  1. A1C less than 6.5%
  2.  A1C less than 7.0%
  3.  A1C less than 8.0%
  4.  A1C greater than 8.0%

Are you right? Follow the link to find out!

Question 835 (May 26th): Mr. Fontello

Mr. Fontello is an overweight, Caucasian 63-year old patient who comes in for a 6-month check-up. He has a 12-year history of type 2 diabetes. He was diagnosed at age 33 with high blood pressure, but had never really done much about it as it was “too much of a hassle” and he felt “just fine.” At the time his diabetes was diagnosed, he was referred to a diabetes education program and was started on metformin, lovastatin, losartan and aspirin. He has an individualized A1C goal of 7%. Four years after diagnosis, pioglitazone was added to Mr. Fontello’s diabetes regimen. Three years ago, he came in for an appointment complaining of polyuria, polydipsia and fatigue with an office A1C of 9.3%. At that time he was started nightly basal insulin detemir. Since that time, he has made concerted efforts to eat a healthy diet and get to the gym. Today, he reports his SBGM fasting plasma glucose levels are on target (FPG below 130mg/dL). He also states that his feet always feel a little bit swollen. BP 128/78, HR 73, RR 19. Physical exam is remarkable for peripheral edema and mildly decreased pedal pulses. Current medications: metformin, pioglitazone, insulin detemir, lovastatin, losartan, aspirin. At today’s visit, his office A1C is 8.1%.

What changes would you recommend for his antihyperglycemic regimen?

Select one answer:

[A] Add a premixed insulin to all three meals of the day

[B] Increase his detemir dose

[C] Add a sulfonylurea to his regimen

[D] Add a rapid-acting insulin analogue to his largest meal of the day

Are you right? Follow the link to find out!