When asked about their breakfasts, European adolescents reported….
The study design for this study was a cross-sectional clinical trial. Breakfast consumption was assessed by the statement ‘I often skip breakfast’ and categorized into ‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin and glucose were measured as well as BMI for measurement parameters during the study. A homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index was also calculated for each participant in the study. This particular study took place in Europe and all study participants were European. The final study was titled HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Subjects for the study were European adolescents aged 12·50–17·49 from ten different cities within the HELENA study (n 2929, n 925 with blood sample, 53% females).
Results from the study showed that in males a significant difference across breakfast consumption category (‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’) was seen for age, BMI, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressures, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, glucose, insulin homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index and LDL-C. Females also showed a significant difference for cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness, BMI, insulin and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index among the different breakfast categories included in the study. In overweight and obese males a significant differences was also seen for total cholesterol and LDL, whereas no differences were observed in the study for non-overweight males or in females at all regardless of weight status.
The study confirmed previous data indicating that European adolescents who regularly consume breakfast have lower body fat content. The results also show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. This evidence was more prominent in the male population and showed that, overall, eating breakfast gave a healthier cardiovascular profile. The study suggests that eating breakfast regularly may also negate the effect of excess adiposity on total cholesterol and LDL-C specifically and is more pronounced in European male subjects.
Hollstrom , Lena. "Breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study." Public Health Nutrition . (July 1, 3013): n. page. Web. 8 Jul. 2013.