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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #149: Glucose Toxicity Part 5

The effects are consistent with a role for O-GlcNAc in damping acute hormone- and phosphorylation-mediated signals in situations of chronic nutrient excess. Although discovered in the context of diabetes, the aforementioned changes mediated by the HBP can also be viewed as adaptive responses to excess nutrient flux: muscle cells protect themselves from excess glucose fluxes and the excess nutrients are eventually stored as fat. Indeed, if insulin signaling were not dampened and glycogen synthesis were effectively engaged even with overeating, a pound of ingested carbohydrate would result in approximately four pounds of hydrated glycogen in muscle, and it is easy to visualize diets rich in sodas and donuts resulting in the development of glycogen storage diseases.

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