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Clinical Gems

Our clinical gems come from the top selling medical books, and text books because knowledge is everything when it comes to diabetes.

International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #116: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 6

OSA and incident T2DM: Several studies have examined whether having OSA increases the individual’s risk of developing T2DM, in particular whether obesity is a major risk factor for both conditions and whether OSA has been associated with IR and prediabetes as described earlier. Several cross-sectional studies found a higher prevalence of T2DM in patients with OSA despite adjusting for confounders, particularly age and obesity; these studies are reviewed in. Whether OSA is a predictor of T2DM has been examined in a small number of longitudinal studies that used a variety of methods to diagnose OSA (from symptoms to polysomnography), and to diagnose T2DM (from self-reported to OGTT).

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #115: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 5

OSA and beta-cell function: While the impact of OSA in IR has been studied extensively, the impact of OSA on beta-cell function has received little attention, despite being an essential part of the pathogenesis of T2DM and prediabetes. A small number of animal studies showed that intermittent hypoxia increases beta-cell death, and results in beta-cell dysfunction, although the intermittent hypoxia used in this study is far greater than that which occurs in humans with OSA.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #114: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 4

OSA and glucose metabolism: OSA and dysglycemia have similar risk factors (namely obesity) and hence it is not surprising that these conditions co-exist. However, not all obese patients have both conditions and many patients have one and not the other. Hence, understanding this association and the mechanisms that underpin this relationship is important to understand the pathogenesis of OSA and T2DM. There are many studies that have examined the association between snoring, as a surrogate marker of OSA, and different aspects of glucose metabolism; here, however, we will mainly focus on studies that validated the presence and severity of OSA using more accurate methods.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #113: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 3

OSA pathophysiology: OSA is a very complex disorder, and although obesity and fat deposition around the neck plays an important role, there are many other important players that contribute to the development of this condition. The human upper airway is a unique multipurpose structure involved in performing a variety of tasks such as speech, swallowing, and the passage of air for breathing. The airway, therefore, is composed of numerous muscles and soft tissue but lacks rigid or bony support. Most notably, it contains a collapsible portion that extends from the hard palate to the larynx, which allows the upper airway to change shape and momentarily for speech and swallowing during wakefulness; but this feature also provides the opportunity for collapse at inopportune times such as during sleep.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #112: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 2

OSA epidemiology and risk factors: The prevalence of OSA varies considerably between studies, mainly due to differences in the population studied, study designs, and the method and criteria used to diagnose OSA. A prevalence of 4% in men and 2% in women has traditionally been quoted in many populations. The prevalence from three well-conducted studies with similar design from Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and Spain showed an OSA prevalence of 17–26% in men and 9–28% in women and a prevalence of 9–14% and 2–7% for men and women with moderate to severe OSA. These studies used a two-stage sampling design which allows some degree of estimate of the “self-selection” bias which is usually a significant problem in OSA studies.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #111: Diabetes and Sleep Apnea Part 1

Obesity is a global epidemic that has far-reaching economic and public health implications. Excess body weight is associated with multiple comorbidities including type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dysglycemia andOSA share common risk factors such as age and obesity; hence it is not surprising that OSA and glycemic abnormalities often coexist.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #110: Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer Part 3

Dyslipidemia: The relationship between cholesterol and cancer risk has been difficult to discern from epidemiologic studies. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome and T2DM frequently have a dyslipidemic profile with elevated triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). In the Metabolic Syndrome Cancer (Me-Can) European cohort elevated triglyceride levels were associated with colon, respiratory, kidney, thyroid cancers, and melanoma in men and respiratory, cervical, and nonmelanoma skin cancers in women.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #109: Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer Part 2

Links between diabetes and cancer: common risk factors

Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that those with diabetes are more likely to develop cancer, but the mechanisms through which this may occur are incompletely understood. The American Diabetes Association and the American Cancer Society published a consensus report in 2010, with the aim of examining the knowledge regarding the association between diabetes and cancer, exploring the risk factors for both conditions, to examine their possible biologic links and to determine whether certain treatments for diabetes modify cancer risk.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #108: Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer Part 1

Introduction: An association between hyperglycemia, diabetes, and cancer has been recognized for many years. Epidemiologists first noted the association between diabetes and cancer in the early part of the twentieth century, while the association between hyperglycemia and cancer was reported in 1885. At that time, in Europe and North America life expectancy was improving, rates of over-nutrition and under-exercise were increasing, there was a rise in the percentage of people that were overweight, and the incidence of diabetes began to climb.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #107: Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Part 5

Glucose-lowering agents: Metformin is a biguanide that has been used worldwide for more than 50 years for the treatment of T2DM although its exact mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. It decreases hepatic glucose production and improves insulin sensitivity at the level of the liver, and to a lesser extent, muscle. Metformin has been reported to reduce plasma aminotransferase levels in patients with NAFLD. Early small studies suggested that metformin improved hepatic steatosis, necro-inflammation and/or fibrosis in patients with NASH, but not in more recent and better controlled clinical trials.

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