You are reviewing lifestyle modifications with a 42-year-old, relatively sedentary patient who has been newly diagnosed with prediabetes. Your screening for any cardiovascular risk factors was negative, so she has agreed to a 3-month trial of dietary modifications and increased physical activity. Structured exercise interventions and modest weight loss have been shown to lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations by an average of:
Answer: C. 58%
The Da Qing study in China found even modest changes in exercise (20 minutes mild-moderate, 10 minutes strenuous, 5 minutes very strenuous exercise 1-2 times per day) reduced the risk of developing diabetes by 46%. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study and the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) looked at the effects of intensive lifestyle modifications (diet and increased physical activity) on the development of diabetes in individuals with either IGT or IFG. The Finnish study participants were assigned to either 30 minutes/day of moderate physical activity or a “no-change” group. The DPP participants were randomized to either control, metformin or lifestyle modifications (dietary changes, weight loss goals and 150 minutes of weekly aerobic activity) groups. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study and the U.S. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) both showed 58% reduction in diabetes incidence. Participants in the DPP metformin group had a 31% reduced incidence of developing diabetes. The benefits of increased physical activity on diabetes prevention endured across ethnic groups, both sexes and those who did not meet weight loss goals.
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