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New Way to Regenerate Beta Cells in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

A peptide called caerulein converted existing cells in the pancreas into insulin-generating beta cells….

Dr. Fred Levine, professor and director of the Sanford Children’s Health Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, stated that, "We have found a promising technique for type 1 diabetics to restore the body’s ability to produce insulin. By introducing caerulein to the pancreas we were able to generate new beta cells, potentially freeing patients from daily doses of insulin to manage their blood sugar levels."

For the study, Dr. Levine and colleagues injected diabetic mice with almost no beta cell function with caerulein. They found that the tiny peptide caused existing alpha cells in the pancreas to regenerate into neighboring pancreatic beta cells.
To test whether caerulein may have the same transforming effect on humans, Levine’s team administered caerulein to pancreatic tissue from patients with type 1 diabetes and found that alpha cells also turned into beta cells, regardless of how young or old the tissue was.

Generating new cells that produce insulin is one of the major areas of research into finding a cure for type 1 diabetes, but because the condition is an autoimmune disease, any new beta cells will still be targeted by the body’s immune system.
In addition to finding a way to combat the autoimmune response present in every patient with type 1 diabetes, Dr. Levine says there is another issue that needs addressing. "When caerulein is administered to humans it can cause pancreatitis. So our next step is to find out which molecule(s) caerulein is targeting on alpha cells that triggers their transformation into beta cells." He adds that if this can be achieved, scientists can develop a more targeted drug and eventually begin human clinical trials.

Practice Pearls:
  • Caerulein can convert existing cells in the pancreas into insulin-generating beta cells
  • The tiny peptide caused existing alpha cells in the pancreas to regenerate into pancreatic beta cells
  • Caerulein administration may increase pancreatitis

Published online July 31 in Cell Death and Disease