WeightGain:LossA nationwide longitudinal study investigated the association between weight change and subsequent all-cause mortality, using a large-scale population-based between 2005 and 2015.  A total of 11,524,763 subjects aged over 20 years were included. Weight was measured every two years and weight change over 4 years was divided into eight categories, from weight loss ≥15% to weight gain ≥20%, for every 5% of weight change. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality were analyzed using multivariable Cox’s proportional hazard models compared to the stable weight group (weight change < 5kg) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, and income. The results showed that weight loss was associated with increased mortality more than weight gain; the group with weight loss ≥15% had the highest HR for all-cause mortality (HR; 95% CI=2·598; 2·537-2·659). The HR for all-cause mortality in the ≥20% weight gain group was 1·784 (95% CI=1·695-1·877). Across all body mass index (BMI) categories, weight loss ≥15% was associated with increased mortality rates and the highest mortality rates were found in the BMI ≥30 kg/m2 group (HR; 95% CI=3·469; 2·236-5·381). From the results it was concluded that weight change over 4 years showed a reverse J-shaped all-cause mortality curve, independent of BMI status. — The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (JCEM) Published Aug 2017