The authors of this study investigated whether short sleep duration affects the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on mortality. During the study, 1,344 participants (mean age, 48.8 years) were followed for an average of 16.6 years. The participants were classified into two groups based on polysomnographic (sleep study) sleep duration into ≥6 hours or <6 hours sleep. During follow-up, 22% of participants died. All-cause and cardiovascular disease/cerebrovascular mortality associated with MetS hazard ratios (95% CI) were 1.29 (0.89–1.87) and 1.49 (0.75–2.97) for individuals who slept ≥6 hours and 1.99 (1.53–2.59) and 2.10 (1.39–3.16) for individuals who slept <6 hours. This effect was mainly a result of elevated blood pressure and glucose dysregulation among patients with MetS. The risk of mortality associated with MetS is increased in those with a sleep duration of <6 hours. Published in Diabetes, June 01, 2017