Although air pollution containing fine dust particles is gaining attention worldwide, little is known about the effects of such pollutants on diabetic wounds. Air pollutants from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) cause inflammation, resulting in an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which attract monocytes and T cells to the sites of inflammation. The authors evaluated the effects of air pollutants on diabetic wounds. According to researchers, exhaust particles from diesel fuel can trigger inflammatory responses from cytokines known to slow wound healing, especially for patients with diabetic ulcers. It has been shown that pollution can delay wound healing, especially for those with diabetes.  Air-polluting diesel exhaust particles, already linked to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, also can delay diabetic wound healing. The team examined the effect of such pollutants on rats, measuring levels of post-exposure inflammation in normal and diabetic fibroblasts, critical collagen-producing cells found in connective tissue. One of the cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2, is normally undetectable but can be induced with pro-inflammatory stimuli. In this study, exposure to diesel exhaust particles increased cyclooxygenase-2, already implicated in processes related to diabetic neuropathy. The resulting inflammation can be particularly dangerous for patients with diabetic ulcers. “Wound healing requires complex cellular and molecular events that can lead to either accelerated or delayed healing, the latter of which can result in chronic wounds,” researchers wrote.Wounds March 2017;29(3):65–70. Epub 2016 December 29