Eating breakfast can have a positive effect on a person's BMI, fasting glucose levels, and postprandial insulin sensitivity. In a study led by Rabinovitz et al, the effect of breakfast size and content on patients with type 2 diabetes was analyzed.
In this randomized controlled trial, eligible participants were overweight/obese and had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomized into either a small breakfast or big breakfast group. Those in the big breakfast group ate more foods high in protein and fat. A lipid panel, fasting adipokines, hormones, and inflammatory markers were all measured and obtained at baseline and at week 13 of the study.
A total of 47 participants completed the study and at the end of follow-up, greater improvements were made in HbA1c levels and systolic blood pressure decreased more in participants from the big breakfast group. In addition, in the big breakfast group more doses of medications for diabetes were decreased, while in the small breakfast group, participants needed more increased doses of their medications. Furthermore, those in the big breakfast group displayed less hunger and had better fasting glucose levels when compared to those in the small breakfast group.
In conclusion, a bigger breakfast, rich in protein and fat, is shown to be more beneficial in individuals with type 2 diabetes than a smaller breakfast low on calories.
Presented at EASD Barcelona, September 2013. Rabinovitz H, et al. Big breakfast rich in protein improved glycaemic control and satiety feeling in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.