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How Gastric Bypass Eliminates Diabetes Symptoms

Researchers looked at the change in hormones and amino acid levels following gastric bypass surgery…. 

Researchers out of Lund University studied hormonal and metabolite profiles in 4 patients, who had received gastric bypass surgery, following the administration of identical nutrient intake in preoperative and postoperative scenarios. To simulate the preoperative scenario, a gastronomy tube was inserted to deliver the nutrients to the bypassed stomach.

The 4 patients were given a mixed meal test orally at first, allowing the nurtients to follow the route of the gastric bypass as part of the postoperative scenario. Separated by an overnight and 2hr fasting time period, the mixed meal test was administered through the gastronomy tube to simulate the preoperative scenario. Blood samples were analyzed following each meal administration and the hormones and metabolites were assessed for comparison.

The results as reported by the authors, showed a 4.6-fold increase in plasma insulin, a 2-fold in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and a 2.5-fold in glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide when the nutrients were given orally to follow the gastric bypass route compared to the gastronomy tube administration. Higher levels of branched chain amino acids and suppressed levels of fatty acids were measured from the gastric bypass route compared to the gastronomy tube.

The authors concluded that the increased secretion of insulin and incretin hormones following meal administration may explain the suppression of diabetes symptoms in gastric bypass patients. This better understanding of digestion following gastric bypass surgery may shed light on new methods of improving glycemic control for the treatment of diabetes.

"Effects of Ingestion Routes on Hormonal and Metabolic Profiles in Gastric-Bypassed Humans." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2013): n. pag. JCEM: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.