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Effects of Pioglitazone vs. Glipizide on Fat Distribution and Water Content in T

For people with type 2 diabetes, when pioglitazone and glipizide are given in doses sufficient to achieve equivalent glycemic control, pioglitazone increases total body water, thereby accounting for the majority of weight gain, and decreased visceral and abdominal fat content. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist and glipizide, an insulin secretagogue, are commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes. Our study was designed to examine the effects of pioglitazone versus glipizide on body water, body composition, and hemodynamic parameters in the presence of comparable glycemic control between groups.

19 diabetic subjects were randomly assigned to either 45 mg pioglitazone (n = 8) or 10 mg (median dose) glipizide (n = 11) for 12 weeks. Body water content was measured with deuterated water, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, and cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance by acetylene rebreathing technique both before and after therapy.

The results showed that Pioglitazone increased total body water (+2.4 +/- 0.5 l) accounting for 75% of the total weight gain (+3.1 +/- 2.0 kg) but did not alter vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations. Total abdominal (-32.2 +/- 19 cm(2)) and visceral fat area (-16.1 +/- 8 cm(2)) tended to decrease with pioglitazone but increased (P < 0.02 for differences between groups) with glipizide (+38.4 +/- 17 cm(2) abdominal; +19.1 +/- 9 cm(2) visceral). Pioglitazone tended to reduce (P = 0.05) diastolic (-8.4 +/- 4 mmHg) and mean (-9.5 +/- 5 mmHg; P = 0.08) blood pressure and reduced (P < 0.001) systemic vascular resistance (2,785 +/- 336 vs. 2,227 +/- 136 dynes/s per m(2)), while there were no differences in these parameters with glipizide. Neither therapy altered circulating catecholamine concentrations.

From the results it was concluded that when pioglitazone and glipizide are given in doses sufficient to achieve equivalent glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes, pioglitazone increases total body water, thereby accounting for the majority of weight gain, tended to decrease visceral and abdominal fat content and blood pressure, and reduces systemic vascular resistance.
Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar;29(3):510-4.

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