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Effect of Sitagliptin on Kidney Function and Cardiovascular Outcomes

A DPP-4 inhibitor can help to preserve kidney function and did not have any negative cardiovascular effects.

The study was done to evaluate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular outcomes in TECOS (Clinical trial reg. no. NCT00790205, clinicaltrials.gov) participants with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease treated with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, according to baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

The study used data from 14,671 TECOS participants assigned in a double-blind design to receive sitagliptin or placebo added to existing therapy, while aiming for glycemic equipoise between groups. Cardiovascular and CKD outcomes were evaluated over a median period of 3 years, with participants categorized at baseline into eGFR stages 1, 2, 3a, and 3b (≥90, 60–89, 45–59, or 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively).

The results showed that participants with eGFR stage 3b were older, were more often female, and had a longer duration of diabetes. Four-point major adverse cardiovascular event rates increased with lower baseline eGFR (3.52, 3.55, 5.74, and 7.34 events/100 patient-years for stages 1–3b, respectively). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for stages 2, 3a, and 3b versus stage 1 were 0.93 (95% CI 0.82–1.06), 1.28 (1.10–1.49), and 1.39 (1.13–1.72), respectively. Sitagliptin therapy was not associated with cardiovascular outcomes for any eGFR stage (interaction P values were all >0.44). Kidney function declined at the same rate in both treatment groups, with a marginally lower but constant eGFR difference (−1.3 mL/min/1.73 m2) in those participants who were assigned to sitagliptin. Treatment differences in these eGFR values remained after adjustment for region, baseline eGFR, baseline HbA1c, time of assessment, and within-study HbA1c levels.

From the results it was concluded that impaired kidney function is associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Sitagliptin has no clinically significant impact on cardiovascular or CKD outcomes, irrespective of baseline eGFR.  “Among older patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, sitagliptin had neutral effects on cardiovascular risk and raised no significant safety concerns,” the authors write.

Practice Pearls

  • The study was done to evaluate chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular outcomes.
  • The study used data from 14,671 participants assigned in a double-blind design to receive sitagliptin or placebo added to existing therapy.
  • Sitagliptin has no clinically significant impact on cardiovascular or CKD outcomes.

Diabetes Care 2016 Dec; 39(12): 2304-2310. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc16-1415