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Diet Soda May Increase Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Levels

The increase was seen in healthy youths and those with type 1 diabetes, but not in those with type 2 diabetes….

Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls, but not in those with type 2 diabetes, according to published research.

Rebecca J. Brown, M.D., M.H.S.C., of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases in Bethesda, Md., and colleagues conducted a randomized, crossover study involving nine individuals with type 1 diabetes, 10 with type 2 diabetes, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 25 years. Participants drank either a cola-flavored, caffeine-free diet soda or carbonated water, followed by a 75-gram glucose load. They then underwent glucose, C-peptide, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, and peptide Tyr-Tyr measurements for 180 minutes.

Compared with carbonated water, the researchers found that, after ingestion of diet soda, the GLP-1 area under the curve was 34 percent higher in healthy subjects and 43 percent higher in individuals with type 1 diabetes (P = 0.029 and 0.020, respectively), but was unaffected in subjects with type 2 diabetes. None of the other gut hormone measures were significantly statistically different between the groups after ingestion of diet soda or carbonated water.

“It is unknown whether changes in endogenous GLP-1 secretion as observed in the current study have any clinically relevant consequences, such as increased satiety and slowed gastric emptying,” the authors write.

Online March 12 in Diabetes Care