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This article originally posted 04 January, 2005 and appeared in  Issue 241

The Science of Fats, Fatty Acids and Edible Oils Choosing the Right Oils and Fat

Fred Pescatore, MD, MPH, CCN continues to explain fats this week helping you to help your patients understand the process for Choosing the Right Oils and Fats
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The Hampton’s Diet
Fred Pescatore, MD, MPH, CCN

The Science of Fats, Fatty Acids and Edible Oils
Choosing the Right Oils and Fats

If you’ve gotten this far into the book, you know that there is a tremendous amount of information on fats and oils and all you really want to know is which one to use and when to use it. That answer is pretty clear – just take the advice of Jenny who lost 110 pounds on the Hamptons diet in 9 months: “Use MacNut oil for everything – it changed my life.” She went from a size 24 to a size 12 – she lost an entire person and she was thrilled. I like to explain to all my patients what they should know about using fats and oils and the message is clear: MacNut oil for every culinary use; Butter instead of margarine when you want a spread; no polyunsaturated oils; no trans fats. Once Jenny made these changes to her diet, her allergies completely disappeared and she started to lose weight – 16 pounds in the first two weeks alone. So I know I have a convert in her, but what about you? I need to convince you and since you may want to try different oils in recipes from time to time, it is important that you know what you are getting when you purchase that product.

Now that you know the composition of oil and some of the definitions, here is the cheat sheet to keep in mind when buying a fat or oil:

· Monounsaturated fats = healthy = omega-9 fatty acids
· Polyunsaturated fats must be balanced or they are unhealthy. These include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids
· Trans fats = deadly
· Smoke Points = the higher the better
· Oxidation = the slower the better
· Try to balance omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in a 1:1 ratio

In an attempt to make this easier to understand, the following oils will be further broken down into categories 1 – 5.

Category 1 – Low Smoke Point Oils

These are oils that should never be heated. They are meant to be used as nutritional supplements for their fatty acid content. The two most common examples of this type of oil are flaxseed oil and omega-3 fish oils. Keep in mind that the smoke points that I am about to quote are averages based on all the information that I have gathered. Each oil seems to have a range, most likely based on the age of the oil and the lab doing the testing. Some low temperature cooking uses include salad dressings, steaming, simmering, and parboiling. However, I would never use them for anything other than cold uses.

Flax Seed Oil - is the richest source of the omega-3 fatty acid, ALA. It is also the highest plant-based source of omega-3 fatty acids. This should never be used for cooking and must be refrigerated and will only last for two months once opened. It can be stored in the freezer to increase its shelf life, but I recommend only keeping it open for two months and then using on your wood cabinets after that time – it makes a perfect polish. Another way to obtain the benefits of flax seed oil is to grind the seeds yourself each morning in a coffee grinder, being careful not to over grind as this can increase the heat and break down the fatty acid content.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio = 0.3:1 (excellent)
· Omega -3 content = 57%
· Omega-6 content = 16%
· Omega-9 content = 18%
· Saturated Fat = 9%
· Smoke Point = 225 F

Fish Oil – this type of oil is usually comprised of the oils of an assortment of cold water fish such as salmon, mackerel, herring and sardines. This can never be used for cooking and should be stored in the refrigerator. This is generally consumed in the form of a nutritional supplement. Please ensure that the one you use has been tested for mercury and other toxin residues that can easily build up in the fish. Since we are so omega-3 deprived, most of us will need to take one of these supplements at the start of the Hamptons diet to ensure that you combat the high levels of omega-6 fatty acids coursing through your body. The fatty acid content will vary by which fish is ultimately used, by on average:

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio = not a source of omega-6 fatty acids
· Omega-3 content = 75%
· Omega-6 content = 0
· Saturated fat = 25%
· Smoke Point = 235 F

Borage Oil – this is a source of the omega-6 fatty acid called GLA and contains twice as much as evening primrose oil. This should never be used for cooking and is taken in the form of a nutritional supplement. If you will recall, GLA is one of the decent omega-6 fatty acids.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – not a source of omega-3 fatty acids
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 60% but only 22% good omega-6
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 26%
· Saturated Fat = 14%
· Smoke Point = 225 F

Evening Primrose Oil – this is another rich source of the omega-6 fatty acid GLA. This should not be used in cooking.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – not a source of omega-3 fatty acids
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 81% but only 9% good omega-6
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 9%
· Saturated Fat = 10%
· Smoke Point = 225 F

Wheat Germ Oil – this contains some omega-3 fatty acids but is overwhelmingly an omega-6 fatty acid. This should never be used for cooking and most people get this in supplement form by the name of octacosanol. Therefore, if you are taking this supplement, bear in mind that you need to increase your intake of omega-3 fats to balance this out.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 6.5:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 8%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 53%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 22%
· Saturated Fat = 17%
· Smoke Point = 225 F

Hemp Seed Oil – this is not widely used and should never be heated. It is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid, ALA.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 2.5:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 21%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 54%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 15%
· Saturated Fat = 10%
· Smoke Point = 225 – 300 F

Black Currant Oil – this is another decent source of GLA but, without any trace of omega-3 fatty acid. This should never be used for cooking.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – not an appreciable source of omega-3 fatty acids
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 80% - of which only 18% is GLA
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 12%
· Saturated Fat = 8%
· Smoke Point = 225 F

Other low smoke point oils that may be used for cooking (not that I am condoning their use, mind you) include:

· Unrefined canola oil – description to follow in a separate chapter
· Unrefined safflower oil
· Unrefined sunflower oil

Category II – Medium Smoke Point Oils

These are oils that you can begin to cook with at your own risk. Their smoke points lend themselves to light sauté, low heat baking, and pressure cooking – uses where the temperature stays below 320 F. Most of these oils are unrefined and will contain some flavor because of that. Some of the oils in this category are semi-refined. Keep in mind, that the more refined an oil is, the more it has been subjected to processing and the less healthy it is. Some of these oils will be mentioned in different categories as these categories are only set up by smoke point. The fatty acid profile of each oil is different so pay attention to that. Olive oil is in this category but will be discussed in its own chapter.

Corn Oil – this is an old favorite and was the second most commonly used oil in my household when I was growing up, with olive oil being the first, of course. This contains a scant amount of omega-3 fatty acids and is almost entirely omega-6 polyunsaturated fat. The smoke point is for the unrefined version. This should never be used for deep frying because of its tendency to foam. If you are going to use it in the oven, never use it at temperatures greater than 350 F

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 59:1 (pathetic)
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 59%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 27%
· Saturated Fat = 13%
· Smoke Point = 320 F

Peanut Oil – this is high in monounsaturated fat, but not as high as MacNut oil, or olive oil for that matter. Peanuts have aflatoxins and many herbicide and pesticide residues which transfer very easily to the oil. I recommend this oil only if it is organic and only on rare occasions since there are high levels of omega-6 fats, despite the monounsaturated fat content. The smoke point is for the unrefined version of the oil only.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 34:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 34%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 48%
· Saturated Fat = 18%
· Smoke Point = 275 - 300 F

Sesame Oil – this is used extensively in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine so know that you are getting this oil when you eat out in those types of restaurants. This oil also contains some monounsaturated fats, but is high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fats. Some of the health benefits to sesame oil are that it contains unique antioxidants that are not destroyed by heat. This may be due to the sesamol. Sesame oil also contains phosphatidyl choline so this oil is not all bad. Limit its use to rarely since it does have a high amount of omega-6 polyunsaturates.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 45:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 45%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 40%
· Saturated Fat = 15%
· Smoke Point = 250 - 300 F

Soybean Oil – this does not tolerate heat well and is better used cold. This does have a low level of monounsaturated fats. This oil was considered inedible until the 1940’s because of its horrible taste when it was not hydrogenated. A new process for extracting the oil can remove the enzymes responsible for those flavors. Soy bean oil is almost always refined and hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated into shortenings or margarines, or usually salad dressings. For many reasons, including those and because most of the soybean crop in this country is genetically modified, I recommend avoiding this oil.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 11:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 5%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 56%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 24%
· Saturated Fat = 15%
· Smoke Point = 300 F

Safflower Oil – This comes in many different varieties now. This was very popular in the 1970’s when the benefits of polyunsaturated fats were being touted as this oil contains the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fats. I think this oil is quite undesirable and should never be used heated as it oxidizes extremely rapidly because of its high level of double bonds.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 78:1 (the worst)
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 78%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 14%
· Saturated Fat = 8%
· Smoke Point = 300 F

High Oleic Safflower Oil – this comes from a new strain of seed developed to have more monounsaturated fats – another example of frankenfoods. Its high levels of monounsaturated fats (oleic acid) allow this to undergo much less oxidation but it is something I do not recommend because of its genetic manipulation and the smoke point still remains low. Besides, it is very difficult to find cold, expeller pressed versions of this oil and even if you could, it is still a semi-refined oil.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 16:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 16%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 76%
· Saturated Fat = 8%
· Smoke Point = 325 F

Sunflower Oil – This is second to safflower oil in the amount of polyunsaturated fats. It is extremely unstable and is only found in refined versions because of its tendency towards oxidation. This is not a beneficial oil to use.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 69:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 69%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 19%
· Saturated Fat = 12%
· Smoke Point = 300 F

High Oleic Sunflower Oil - As in safflower oil, a new breed of seed was developed that produced a fatty acid content that was much less sensitive to oxidation and much higher in monounsaturated fats. Again, I do not recommend the use of this oil at all as it has been refined and it has a low smoke point.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 6.5:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 11%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 81%
· Saturated Fat = 8%
· Smoke Point = 325 F

Walnut Oil - since most walnuts used for oil are highly processed, the desirability of walnut oil diminishes. If you can find an organic version, you may want to use this on occasion in salad dressings or a light sauté. This oil contains a minor amount of omega-3 fatty acids but it is essentially a polyunsaturated fat and we already have too many of these in our diet. So, if you do decide to use this oil, use it sparingly.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 6.8:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 5%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 58% - 3 % of which is GLA
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 28%
· Saturated Fat = 9%
· Smoke Point = 320 F

Pumpkinseed Oil – this oil does contain some omega-3 fatty acids and has some monounsaturated fats. Pumpkin seeds and pumpkin butter are probably a better way to get this into your diet, if you feel you need to.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 20:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 3%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 60%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 20%
· Saturated Fat = 17%
· Smoke Point = 250 F

Pistachio Oil – this has a high percentage of monounsaturated fat but also has many polyunsaturated fats.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 31:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 31%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 54%
· Saturated Fat = 15%
· Smoke Point = 325 - 350 F

Olive Oil - I am listing the fatty acid profiles here strictly for comparison. This oil will be discussed separately. While this certainly has a good profile, there is one oil that is significantly better.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 12:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 12%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 72%
· Saturated Fat = 15%
· Smoke Point = 250 - 300 F

Category 3 – High Smoke Point Oils

If so inclined, the oils in this category can be used for most baking uses. They may also be used for sauté, stir-frying, and wok cooking, from a strictly smoke point perspective. However, these oils are either semi-refined or completely refined for most of them, so I don’t recommend their use. Some of the fatty acid profiles of the oils in this category have been described above. There isn’t really much new to report in this category as the higher smoke points of this category are simply due to the oil being more refined than the one already mentioned. I will mention those in this category simply for their higher smoke points. Please remember, the more the oil has been refined, the less healthy it is.

Cottonseed Oil – this is not widely available for consumer use and is almost exclusively used as an ingredient in processed foods. This has a long history of use in this country, since the 1860’s when cotton was king; and, was the source of the first Crisco ever made in 1911. It is used in processed foods because of its high smoke point and its ability to increase shelf life because it has been hydrogenated. The saturated fat that it does contain is palmitic acid which has been shown to elevate cholesterol. Because of its level of hydrogenation, cottonseed oil contains many trans fatty acids.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 56:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 56%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 18%
· Saturated Fat = 26%
· Smoke Point = 400 F

Grapeseed Oil – the fastest rising star in the culinary world. For what reason, I will never know. This is made from the seeds of grapes after the wine is pressed. Most of this oil on the market has been chemically extracted and in my opinion has been crushed twice. The characteristics are not impressive either. I would never use this oil in my own kitchen and I do not recommend that you do so either.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 76:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 76%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 15%
· Saturated Fat = 9%
· Smoke Point = 400 F

Tea Seed or Camellia Oil – this is a new type of oil from China. I am hesitant to recommend it because it is being touted as the answer to everything – medicinal to healthy, so I am a little skeptical. However, in order to be complete, I include this here.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 8:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 8%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 83%
· Saturated Fat = 8%
· Smoke Point = 400 F

Canola Oil – again, this is here so you can compare the profiles more easily but there will be a full discussion in another chapter.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 2.4:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 10%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 24%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 54%
· Saturated Fat = 12%
· Smoke Point = 350 F

Here are the rest that fit this category whose fatty acid profiles have been described above:

Refined Corn Oil = 375 – 400 F
Refined Safflower Oil = 350
Refined Sesame Oil = 350 F
Semi-refined High-Oleic Sunflower Oil = 375 F
Semi-refined Soy Bean oil = 350 F
Refined Soy Bean oil = 400 F
Semi-refined Walnut oil = 400 F
Refined Peanut Oil = 400 F
Semi-refined Sunflower oil = 400
Refined Canola Oil = 400

Category 4 – Highest Smoke Point Oils

This is my favorite categories of oil because I get to talk about the basis for the Hamptons Diet – MacNut oil. MacNut oil fits in this category but so do a few other oils. Most are refined, but some, like MacNut are not. These oils have very high smoke points and can be used for searing, browning, deep-frying, tempura, breaded foods, and high temperature baking.

Maria couldn’t wait to start her diet program. All her friends had lost weight on my program and she wanted to be next. She had one little problem – she was afraid to switch to MacNut oil. She had always used olive oil and thought she was really being healthy by doing that. Besides, she was of Latin heritage, and couldn’t see making the switch – nothing would taste right. I explained that the key to the Hamptons diet and why it works so well is because of the perfect health profile of its star ingredient – MacNut oil. MacNut oil has:

· A high smoke point
· 1:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids
· Monounsaturated rich – the most of any other oil

I explained that this balance helps the body to heal and to allow the weight to come off while decreasing many health risks along the way. She reluctantly agreed to do it but mostly because all her girlfriends had already made the switch. Three months, six dress sizes and 30 pounds later, she couldn’t be happier.

Let’s simply start with those we have already mentioned that have been further refined to get higher smoke points. Again, the fatty acid profiles remain basically the same but due to the processing, the smoke point increases:

Refined High Oleic Safflower = 450 F
Refined High Oleic Sunflower = 450 F
High Refined Peanut = 450 F
High Refined Soybean = 450 F

MacNut oil – this oil contains the highest amount of monounsaturated fats on the market, making it extremely stable, and enabling it to have a long shelf life. I mention it first because this is the gold standard of oils – every oil should have this healthy a profile. The attributes of this oil will be fully explained in another chapter. It is here for comparison sake.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 1:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 2%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 2%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 84%
· Saturated Fat = 12%
· Smoke Point = 400 - 450 F

Almond Oil – like most oils made from nuts, this has a high smoke point, good levels of monounsaturated fats, but still has a moderated level of polyunsaturates.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 28:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 28%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 65%
· Saturated Fat = 7%
· Smoke Point = 430 F

Hazelnut Oil – this nut oil contains a very high amount of monounsaturated fats, but still has a polyunsaturated fat content that remains a little high. This oil is often mixed into lower grades of olive oil to raise its smoke point and lower the acidity level so it can pass as an extra virgin olive oil. However, the level of moega-6 fatty acids does not make this oil a wise choice for your table.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 15:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 15%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 75%
· Saturated Fat = 10%
· Smoke Point = 425 F

Palm Oil or Palm Kernel Oil – the palm oil is isolated from the pulp of the oil palm tree and the kernel oil is derived from the kernel. They have slightly different fatty acid profiles because of this, but they are both high in saturated fat. This is all-natural healthy saturated fats though. Do not fear these oils unless they have been hydrogenated. They are rich in lauric acid which is a medium chain triglyceride that has been shown to have anti-viral health benefits amongst others. However, they do not contain signifiacant amounts of monounsaturated fats, so their use will never make you rich in that way. Therefore I do not recommend their use on a regular basis. These oils are very stable and remain so for many months without turning rancid at room temperature. Fractionated Palm kernel oil is often found in carob candies to imitate the consistency of chocolate and when the oil is fractionated, the oil is separated from the solid fat and manipulated to gain a higher melting point. These are always sold to manufacturers as refined oils.

For palm oil:
· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 10:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 10%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 39%
· Saturated Fat = 51%
· Smoke Point = 450 F

For palm kernel oil:
· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 2:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 2%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 14%
· Saturated Fat = 84%
· Smoke Point = 450 F

Coconut oil – this is another misunderstood fat. It is derived from the coconut meat. It has been used for centuries and as long as it is not hydrogenated, it is not that bad –and certainly much better than those polyunsaturated fats that we have all been in love with for so long. This is rich in saturated fats and contains no appreciable unsaturated fatty acids. More than 2/3 of the saturated fats in coconut oil are medium chain triglycerides, those healthy saturated fats. This is extremely stable at high temperatures and has a low degree of oxidation.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – there are no appreciable omega-3’s
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 8%
· Saturated Fat = 91%
· Smoke Point = 450 F

Apricot Kernel Oil – as it name implies this is made from the pits of apricots. Because of that, it has a high smoke point but the fatty acid ratio is not conducive to good health.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 31:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 31%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 63%
· Saturated Fat = 6%
· Smoke Point = 495 F

Rice Bran Oil – this is made from the outer bran of rice. It has a high smoke point, but not much else going for it.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 27:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 27%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 46%
· Saturated Fat = 26%
· Smoke Point = 500 F

Avocado Oil – this is considered a monounsaturated fat; but it is only available through a mechanically extracted and refined process. While its monounsaturated fat content is high, it is still not as high as olive or MacNut oil. It also has the highest smoke point of any plant oil.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 18:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 18%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 65%
· Saturated Fat = 17%
· Smoke Point = 520 F

Super Canola Oil – This is the only other oil that needs to be mentioned at this point. I would never have given anything canola that moniker, but I didn’t invent it, some marketing genius did, I am sure. This is a relatively new man-made invention. It is highly refined canola oil made from a variety of rape seed that has been formulated to produce a different fatty acid profile. In my opinion, it is as poisonous as the other canola oils – just what we needed – a more refined and tortured rape seed product.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 1.6:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 6%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 10%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 75%
· Saturated Fat = 9%
· Smoke Point = 520 F

Category 5 - Solid Fats

There are many that fit into this category and most of them are traditional foods that have been used in cooking for centuries. However, some are man-made manipulated food products that are the worst offenders in this category.

Butter – we should probably start with the one that everyone is familiar with. This contains no omega-3 fatty acids and is rich in saturated fat. It is absolutely better for you than margarine because it does contain stearic acid as one of its saturated fats as well as conjugated linoleic acid, a medium chain triglyceride.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 1:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 1%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 32%
· Saturated Fat = 65%
· Smoke Point = 350 F

Lard or Pork Fat – the amount of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids will depend on what the pig has been fed. Lard is stable and is a good source of vitamin D.
· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 12:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 12%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 48%
· Saturated Fat = 40%
· Smoke Point = 365 F

Chicken Fat – Again, the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids will depend on what the bird eats. If the chicken is fed flax or fish meal, the omega-3 fatty acid levels can be raised. The same can be accomplished if they are allowed to roam freely and eat their own natural diet.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 20:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = hard to tell
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 20%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 495%
· Saturated Fat = 31%
· Smoke Point = 375 F

Beef Tallow – is the fat from beef and beef suet is the fat from the cavity of the animal.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 5:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 5%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 40%
· Saturated Fat = 55% for the tallow and 75% for the suet
· Smoke Point = 400 F

Duck and Goose Fat – this was used in traditional Jewish cooking, even more so that chicken fat. As with any animal, the omega-3 to omega-6 ratios varies depending on their diet.

· Omega-6 to omega-3 ratio – 13:1
· Omega-3 fatty acids = 0
· Omega-6 fatty acids = 13%
· Omega- 9 fatty acids = 52%
· Saturated Fat = 35%
· Smoke Point = 375 F

As you can see this business of oils and fats doesn’t get any easier as you begin to dig deeper into the situation. However, it is critical to understand fats as we move into the next era of dieting – the Hamptons era. Next time we will look more in depth at two of the most popular cooking oils: canola and olive oil.

If you would like to purchase the Hamptons Diet or any of Dr. Pescatore’s other books please visit this link: Pescatore Books

To read Dr. Pescatore’s credentials click here

http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/Pescatore/about.shtml

To read other articles by Dr. Pescatore please visit http://www.diabetesincontrol.com/Pescatore/index.shtml

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This article originally posted 04 January, 2005 and appeared in  Issue 241

Past five issues: Issue 747 | Diabetes Clinical Mastery Series Issue 206 | SGLT-2 Inhibitors Special Edition September 2014 | Issue 746 | Diabetes Clinical Mastery Series Issue 205 |


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