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Production Assistant, Diabetes In Control

International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #42: Neuropeptides and Islet Hormone Secretion Part 1 of 5

The traditional view is that islet hormone secretion is mainly regulated by circulating nutrients (glucose, amino acids, free fatty acids) as well as the gut incretin hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)). However, in certain circumstances regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion is also dependent on the autonomic nerves which innervate the islets. These nerves belong to the parasympathetic, sympathetic, and sensory branches of the autonomic nervous system.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #41: Normal Beta-cell Function Part 6 of 6

Beta-Cell function and glucose homeostasis: Insulin secretion, together with the sensitivity to insulin of glucose-utilizing tissues, is a key player in glucose homeostasis. What is relevant for glucose homeostasis is not the absolute insulin secretion levels but insulin secretion relative to glucose, as typically assessed by the beta-cell dose-response during the physiologic condition of oral glucose ingestion. Thus, beta-cell glucose sensitivity is strongly inversely associated to mean glucose levels during a standard OGTT and explains, together with insulin sensitivity, a substantial proportion of the variability in glucose levels.

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Remission Treatment

If the FDA approved, and if it would cause their diabetes to go into remission for 1 or 2 years — giving them time to use lifestyle changes to delay or prevent having diabetes return – would you recommend to your newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, a 2- or 3-week treatment with insulin twice a day? Follow the link to share your opinion!

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Diabetes Type 2 Guide

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin (a hormone made by the pancreas) to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use.

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #40: Normal Beta-cell Function Part 5 of 6

Beta-cell mass and function: beta-cell mass can be accurately evaluated only through autopsy studies. Complex in vivo tests aiming at measuring maximal secretory capacity combining different stimuli have been proposed as an alternative. However, their ability to discriminate between defects in function and mass, as well as their feasibility, is a matter of debate. As thoroughly reviewed by Robertson, the acute response to an i.v. glucose bolus in normoglycemic subjects and the acute response to an i.v. arginine bolus in hyperglycemic subjects do correlate with beta-cell mass.

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Question #849

Test Your Knowledge

Issue849Graph How good are you at interpreting graphs? Follow the link to see this graph at full size and indicate the parameter that best describes Curve 1. Is it: insulin secretion, postprandial glucose, fasting glucose, or insulin resistance?

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Lifestyle Changes

Do you think people who are prescribed a drug, like metformin, for prediabetes are more or less likely to make lifestyle changes that could help their prediabetes? Follow the link to share your opinion!

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