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July 5, 2016

This past week it seems that the genomic testing company 23&ME has been on an advertising blitz. Maybe they feel that Independence Day is a great time for people to think about their heritage. It was interesting that after one of their commercials, there was one from a large cancer …

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International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 4th Ed., Excerpt #31: Beta-Cell Biology of Insulin Secretion Part 1 of 5

In pancreatic beta cells, glucose metabolism is essential for the regulation of insulin secretion. Glucose is taken up by glucose transporters and metabolized to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the main driver of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). Increased cytosolic ATP causes closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, depolarizing the plasma membrane, leading to the opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), which allows Ca2+ influx. The resultant rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induces exocytosis of insulin granules in the triggering pathway of insulin secretion. In addition, other signals generated by glucose amplify insulin secretion. Lipid metabolism is also involved in GIIS by interacting with glucose metabolism.

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